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Valencia was the capital of the Taifa of Valencia. In the Christian king James I of Aragon conquered the city and divided the land among the nobles who helped him conquer it, as witnessed in the Llibre del Repartiment.
He also created a new law for the city, the Furs of Valencia , which were extended to the rest of the Kingdom of Valencia.
In the 18th century Philip V of Spain abolished the privileges as punishment to the kingdom of Valencia for aligning with the Habsburg side in the War of the Spanish Succession.
Valencia was the capital of Spain when Joseph Bonaparte moved the Court there in the summer of It also served as capital between and , during the Second Spanish Republic.
The city is situated on the banks of the Turia , on the east coast of the Iberian Peninsula , fronting the Gulf of Valencia on the Mediterranean Sea.
Due to its long history, this is a city with numerous popular celebrations and traditions, such as the Fallas featuring the traditional Spanish dish paella , which were declared as Fiestas of National Tourist Interest of Spain in  and Intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO in November The Roman historian Livy explains that the founding of Valentia in the 2nd century BC was due to the settling of the Roman soldiers who fought against an Iberian rebel, Viriatus.
During the rule of the Muslim kingdoms in Spain , it had the nickname Medina bu-Tarab 'City of Joy' according to one transliteration, or Medina at-Turab 'City of Sands' according to another, since it was located on the banks of the River Turia.
It is not clear if the term Balansiyya was reserved for the entire Taifa of Valencia or also designated the city. It is spelled according to Catalan etymology, though its pronunciation is closer to Vulgar Latin.
Valencia stands on the banks of the Turia River , located on the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula and the western part of the Mediterranean Sea , fronting the Gulf of Valencia.
At its founding by the Romans, it stood on a river island in the Turia, 6. The City Council bought the lake from the Crown of Spain for 1,, pesetas in ,  and today it forms the main portion of the Parc Natural de l'Albufera Albufera Nature Reserve , with a surface area of 21, hectares 52, acres.
In , because of its cultural, historical, and ecological value, the Generalitat Valenciana declared it a natural park.
Valencia has a subtropical Mediterranean climate Köppen Csa  with short, very mild winters and long, hot and dry summers.
Its average annual temperature is Generally, similar temperatures to those experienced in the northern part of Europe in summer last about 8 months, from April to November.
Valencia has one of the mildest winters in Europe, owing to its southern location on the Mediterranean Sea and the Foehn phenomenon.
The January average is comparable to temperatures expected for May and September in the major cities of northern Europe.
Sunshine duration hours are 2, per year, from average nearly 5 hours of sunshine duration a day in December to average above 10 hours of sunshine duration a day in July.
Valencia enjoyed strong economic growth before the economic crisis of , much of it spurred by tourism and the construction industry , [ citation needed ] with concurrent development and expansion of telecommunications and transport.
However, the city still maintains an important industrial base, with 8. Growth has recently improved in the manufacturing sector, mainly automobile assembly; The large factory of Ford Motor Company lies in a suburb of the city, Almussafes .
Agricultural activities are still carried on in the municipality, even though of relatively minor importance with only 1.
Since the onset of the Great Recession , Valencia had experienced a growing unemployment rate, increased government debt, etc. Severe spending cuts had been introduced by the city government.
In , Valencia was designated "the 29th fastest-improving European city". Other exports include oranges, furniture, ceramic tiles, fans, textiles and iron products.
Valencia's manufacturing sector focuses on metallurgy, chemicals, textiles, shipbuilding and brewing. Small and medium-sized industries are an important part of the local economy, and before the current crisis unemployment was lower than the Spanish average.
Valencia's port underwent radical changes to accommodate the 32nd America's Cup in It was divided into two parts—one was unchanged while the other section was modified for the America's Cup festivities.
The two sections remain divided by a wall that projects far into the water to maintain clean water for the America's Cup side. Public transport is provided by the Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat Valenciana FGV , which operates the Metrovalencia and other rail and bus services.
The City of Valencia also makes available a bicycle sharing system named Valenbisi to both visitors and residents. As of 13 October , the system has bikes distributed over stations all throughout the city.
The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Valencia, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 44 min.
The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 5. Starting in the mids, Valencia, formerly an industrial centre, saw rapid development that expanded its cultural and tourism possibilities, and transformed it into a newly vibrant city.
Many local landmarks were restored, including the ancient Towers of the medieval city Serrans Towers and Quart Towers , and the Saint Miquel dels Reis monastery es: Monasterio de San Miguel de los Reyes , which now holds a conservation library.
Whole sections of the old city, for example the Carmen Quarter, have been extensively renovated. In addition to these Valencia has hosted world-class events that helped shape the city's reputation and put it in the international spotlight, e.
The America's Cup yachting races were held at Valencia in June and July and attracted huge crowds. The Louis Vuitton stage drew 1,, visitors and the America's Cup match drew , visitors to the event.
Education system in Valencia is divided into four levels, each of which has several stages: At this stage, students focus on particular subjects and prepare to enter a university;.
Only two levels of education are compulsory: Upon passing exams in the next stage, students obtain the Bachiller certificate an alternative to the International Baccalaureate , which allows them to enroll in any Spanish university.
All schools are either public free or private the latter may also be partly funded by the state. The academic year starts the first week of September and ends in late June.
Classes are usually held Monday through Friday for 7—8 hours a day, but the schedule depends on the particular school's programme and the age of the student.
Studying Spanish is compulsory at all schools, including the international schools, and English is typically taught as a foreign language.
The third largest city in Spain and the 24th most populous municipality in the European Union , Valencia has a population of ,  within its administrative limits on a land area of The urban area of Valencia extending beyond the administrative city limits has a population of between 1,,  and 1,, This growth in the foreign born population, which rose from 1.
There are also a number of well-preserved traditional Catholic festivities throughout the year.
Holy Week celebrations in Valencia are considered some of the most colourful in Spain. Valencia was once the site of the Formula One European Grand Prix , first hosting the event on 24 August , but was dropped at the beginning of the Grand Prix season, though still holds the annual Moto GP race at the Circuit Ricardo Tormo , usually that last race of the season in November.
It was listed as one of the four leading Spanish universities in the Shanghai Academic Ranking of World Universities. Valencia is a bilingual city: Valencian and Spanish are the two official languages.
Spanish is official in all of Spain, whereas Valencian is official in the Valencian Community. Despite distinct dialectal traits and political tension between Catalonia and Valencia, Catalan and Valencian are mutually intelligible and considered two varieties of the same language by the linguistic academies and governments of both regions, just under different names.
Valencian has been historically de-emphasised in favour of Spanish. This situation also applies in the city of Alicante, population ,, the southernmost section of Alicante province with , inhabitants, and the traditionally Spanish-speaking population in the western regions of the Valencian Community.
Whereas the language has remained active in the rural, coastal and metropolitan areas which have a population of 3.
After the Castille-Aragon unification , a Spanish-speaking elite established itself in the city. The upper classes in Valenician favoured Spanish while the opposite was the case in Catalonia.
In more recent history, the establishment of Franco 's military and administrative apparatus in Valencia further excluded Valencian from public life.
Valencian recovered its official status, prestige and use in education after the transition to democracy in However, due to industrialisation in recent decades, Valencia has attracted immigration from other regions in Spain, and hence there is also a demographic factor for its declining social use.
Due to a combination of these reasons, Valencia has become the bastion of anti-Catalan blaverism , which celebrates Valencian as merely folkloric, but rejects the existing standard which was adapted from Catalan orthography.
Spanish is currently the predominant language in the city proper . Due to the education system, most Valencians know Spanish and Valencian, and either can be used in the city.
Valencia is therefore the second biggest Catalan-speaking city after Barcelona. Institutional buildings and streets are named in Valencian.
The city is also home to many pro-Valencian political and civil organisations. Furthermore, education entirely in Valencian is offered in more than 70 state-owned schools in the city, as well as by the University of Valencia across all disciplines.
Valencia is famous for its gastronomic culture. Valencia was also the birthplace of the cold xufa beverage known as orxata , popular in many parts of the world, including the Americas.
The Falles Fallas in Spanish is an enduring tradition in Valencia and other towns in the Valencian Community ,  where it has become an important tourist attraction.
The festival began in the 18th century,  and came to be celebrated on the night of the feast day of Saint Joseph , the patron saint of carpenters, with the burning of waste planks of wood from their workshops, as well as worn-out wooden objects brought by people in the neighborhood.
This tradition continued to evolve, and eventually the parots were dressed with clothing to look like people—these were the first ninots , with features identifiable as being those of a well-known person from the neighborhood often added as well.
In the city inaugurated the awarding of prizes for the best Falles monuments,  and neighborhood groups still vie with each other to make the most impressive and outrageous creations.
Valencia is one of the oldest cities in Spain, founded in the Roman period, c. A few centuries later, with the power vacuum left by the demise of the Roman imperial administration, the Catholic Church assumed the reins of power in the city, coinciding with the first waves of the invading Germanic peoples Suevi , Vandals and Alans , and later the Visigoths.
The city surrendered to the invading Moors Berbers and Arabs about AD,  and the cathedral of Saint Vincent was turned into a mosque.
The Castilian nobleman Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar, known as El Cid , in command of a combined Christian and Moorish army, besieged the city beginning in After the siege ended in May , he ruled the city and its surrounding territory as his own fiefdom for five years from 15 June to July The city remained in the hands of Christian troops until , when the Almoravids retook the city and restored the Muslim religion.
The Almoravid Masdali took possession on 5 May , then the Almohads , seized control of it in Many Jews lived in Valencia during early Muslim rule, including the accomplished Jewish poet Solomon ibn Gabirol , who spent his last years in the city.
When the city fell to James I of Aragon , the Jewish population of the city constituted about 7 percent of the population. In ,  King James I of Aragon , with an army composed of Aragonese , Catalans , Navarrese and crusaders from the Order of Calatrava , laid siege to Valencia and on 28 September obtained a surrender.
The city endured serious troubles in the midth century, including the decimation of the population by the Black Death of and subsequent years of epidemics — as well as a series of wars and riots that followed.
In , the Jewish quarter was destroyed. The 15th century was a time of economic expansion, known as the Valencian Golden Age, during which culture and the arts flourished.
Concurrent population growth made Valencia the most populous city in the Crown of Aragon. In painting and sculpture, Flemish and Italian trends had an influence on Valencian artists.
Valencia rose to become one of the most influential cities on the Mediterranean in the 15th and 16th centuries. However, following the discovery of the Americas, the Valencians, just like the Catalans, Aragonese and Majorcans, were unable to profit from participation in New World commerce due to their location far from the Atlantic coast.
With this loss of trade, Valencia eventually suffered an economic crisis. The crisis deepened during the 17th century with the expulsion in of the Jews and the Moriscos , descendants of the Muslim population that had converted to Christianity.
They were concentrated in the former Kingdom of Aragon , and in the Valencia area specifically, they constituted roughly a third of the total population.
The decline of the city reached its nadir with the War of Spanish Succession — , marking the end of the political and legal independence of the Kingdom of Valencia.
On 24 January , Charles Mordaunt, 3rd Earl of Peterborough, 1st Earl of Monmouth , led a handful of English cavalrymen into the city after riding south from Barcelona, captured the nearby fortress at Sagunt, and bluffed the Spanish Bourbon army into withdrawal.
The English held the city for 16 months and defeated several attempts to expel them. After the victory of the Bourbons at the Battle of Almansa on 25 April , the English army evacuated Valencia and Philip V ordered the repeal of the privileges of Valencia as punishment for the kingdom's support of Charles of Austria.
The Valencian economy recovered during the 18th century with the rising manufacture of woven silk and ceramic tiles. The 18th century was the age of the Enlightenment in Europe, and its humanistic ideals influenced such men as Gregory Maians and Perez Bayer in Valencia, who maintained correspondence with the leading French and German thinkers of the time.
The 19th century began with Spain embroiled in wars with France, Portugal, and England—but the War of Independence most affected the Valencian territories and the capital city.
The repercussions of the French Revolution were still felt when Napoleon's armies invaded the Iberian Peninsula. The mutineers seized the Citadel, a Supreme Junta government took over, and on 26—28 June, Napoleon's Marshal Moncey attacked the city with a column of 9, French imperial troops in the First Battle of Valencia.
He failed to take the city in two assaults and retreated to Madrid. Marshal Suchet began a long siege of the city in October , and after intense bombardment forced it to surrender on 8 January When he returned on 24 March from exile in France, the Cortes requested that he respect the liberal Constitution of , which seriously limited royal powers.
Ferdinand refused and went to Valencia instead of Madrid. Here, on 17 April, General Elio invited the King to reclaim his absolute rights and put his troops at the King's disposition.
The king abolished the Constitution of and dissolved the two chambers of the Spanish Parliament on 10 May. Thus began six years — of absolutist rule, but the constitution was reinstated during the Trienio Liberal , a period of three years of liberal government in Spain from — City life in Valencia carried on in a revolutionary climate, with frequent clashes between liberals and republicans.
The reign of Isabella II as an adult — was a period of relative stability and growth for Valencia.
During the second half of the 19th century the bourgeoisie encouraged the development of the city and its environs; land-owners were enriched by the introduction of the orange crop and the expansion of vineyards and other crops,.
This economic boom corresponded with a revival of local traditions and of the Valencian language, which had been ruthlessly suppressed from the time of Philip V.
Around , the Valencian Renaissance, a movement committed to the revival of the Valencian language and traditions, began to gain ascendancy.
In the early 20th century Valencia was an industrialised city. The silk industry had disappeared, but there was a large production of hides and skins, wood, metals and foodstuffs, this last with substantial exports, particularly of wine and citrus.
Small businesses predominated, but with the rapid mechanisation of industry larger companies were being formed. The best expression of this dynamic was in the regional exhibitions, including that of held next to the pedestrian avenue L'Albereda Paseo de la Alameda , which depicted the progress of agriculture and industry.
World War I — greatly affected the Valencian economy, causing the collapse of its citrus exports. The Second Spanish Republic — opened the way for democratic participation and the increased politicisation of citizens, especially in response to the rise of Conservative Front power in The inevitable march to civil war and the combat in Madrid resulted in the removal of the capital of the Republic to Valencia.
On 6 November , the city became the capital of Republican Spain. The city was heavily bombarded by air and sea, and by the end of the war the city had survived bombardments, leaving 2, dead and wounded, although it is estimated that the death toll was higher.
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